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大雁又称野鹅,是鸭科雁属中的鸿雁、灰雁、豆雁和黑雁等的总称,大型候鸟,属于国家二级保护动物。其性温驯,易于饲养,采食量小,草食性强,生长速度快,料肉比为2.5:1,一般饲养60天左右体重可达4-5千克,重者可达8-10千克。大雁集肉、蛋、绒、药用于一身,其胸腿部肌肉发达,肉纤维虽比野鸭粗,但肉味鲜美,烹调后味香肉嫩。蛋白质高达20.98%,脂肪为10.62%,富含人体所需的维生素和微量元素。大雁翎可制羽毛球、羽毛扇及羽毛笔,羽绒可防寒保暖。目前,大雁养殖刚刚起步,沿海城市及全国一些野味市场都是供不应求,养殖大雁前景良好,现将大雁养殖技术介绍如下。

大雁的生活习性治好癫痫病的方法>

大雁适应性强,属杂食性水禽,常栖息在水生植物丛生的水边或沼泽地,采食一些无毒、无特殊气味的野草、牧草、谷类及螺、虾等。有时也在湖泊中游荡,喜欢在水中交配。合群性强,善争斗。春天10-20只一起小群活动,冬天数百只一起觅食、栖息。宿栖时,有大雁警戒,发现异常,大声惊叫,成群逃逸。群居时,通过争斗确定等级序列,王子雁有优先采食、交配的权力。

大雁的繁殖特点

1 、产蛋:野生大雁性成熟需要3年,为一雄配一雌的单配偶制,而且终生配对,双亲都参与幼雁的养育。人工饲养时,8-9个月达到性成熟,公母比例为 1:2-3。大雁在春季发情,水中交配。求偶时雄雁在水中围绕雌雁游泳,并上下不断摆头,边伸颈汲水假饮边游向雌雁。待雌雁也做出同样的动作回应,雄雁就转至雌雁后面,雌雁将身躯稍微下沉,雄雁就登至雌雁背上用嘴啄住雌雁颈部羽毛,振动双翅,进行交配。交配后共同戏游于水中或至岸上梳理羽毛。雌雁交配后 10天开始产蛋,间隔2-3天产 1枚蛋。年产蛋量第一年为15枚左右,第二年至第六年可达25枚,蛋重每枚150克。

2、 孵化:小规模的雁场可以让大雁自行孵化,也可用母鹅代孵。大规模雁场,需采用人工孵化,孵化期为 31天。选择大小适宜、蛋形正常、颜色符合品种要求及表面清洁的新鲜种蛋,用甲醛熏蒸法(每立方米加15克高锰酸钾、30毫升甲醛,室温为24℃- 27℃)消毒后,放在孵化室(22℃-24℃)内预热6-8小时后即可入孵。入孵前期温度为38.3℃-39.0℃,中期为 37.5℃-38.0℃,后期为37.0℃-37.5℃。相对湿度为75%-80%。每2-3小时翻蛋1次,翻蛋角度为90度,翻蛋时动作应轻、稳、慢,以免引起蛋黄膜血管破裂,尿囊绒毛膜与蛋壳膜分离,引起胚胎死亡。孵化后期每天凉蛋2-3次,凉蛋温度为 25℃~27℃,室温过低,会因“闪蛋”而影响发育。孵化过程中需进行2次照蛋,分别在孵化后第8天和第28天,检出无精蛋和中死蛋,二照后将胚蛋移入出雏机。第30天开始出雏,第31天结束。

大雁的雁舍条件

雁舍要求冬暖夏凉,阳光充足,通风良好。可分为育雏舍、育肥舍和种雁舍。育雏舍应保温防潮,育肥舍要设置棚架,旁边设有食槽和饮水器,种雁舍应较大,舍外有陆地和水上运动场,运动场周围设高1.8-2米的围网。陆地运动场应干爽不积水,铺5厘米厚的砂土,种上树木或作物遮荫,水上运动场的围网直通水底,网孔以大雁头不能钻出为宜。还应有植物丰盛的草地供放牧。

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